A bit about Programming Languages
Machine Language: This is the language of 0s and 1s that make up bits and bytes. Machine language requires no translation. Machine language is directly understood or executed by the computer. Electronic circuits turn these 0s and 1s into the operations the computer performs. The problem was that it was extremely tedious for a person to sit at a keyboard and enter the instructions in long sequences of 0s and 1s. Assembly Language: This uses letters, numbers and symbols to represent individual 0s and 1s. for example, whereas in machine language ‘multiply’ represented as 001011, in an assembly language you just write ‘M’, which is translated by an assembler into 001011 of machine language. This greatly simplifies programming. Assembly languages are powerful programming tools because they allow programmers a large amount of direct control over hardware. They are machine-specific, or machine-dependent. i.e. the instructions are specific to one type of computer hardware. High Level Programming Languages: High level languages are a method of writing programs using English-like words as instructions. High level programming languages combine several machine languages into one high level language. 1.Statement, syntax human and computer languages have two major similarities a) A set of words b) A set of language rules In human language, we construct sentences in a specific way subject, predicate and so on. Likewise when using a computer language, we write instructions using statements and syntax. A)Statement is an expression of instruction in programming language. For example, PRINT, FILE, EXIT, TXT is the set of rules governing the language’s structure and statements. Note: To write in any programming language we have to use its statements and syntax and strictly abide by its syntax rules. B)Compiling High-Level language: High-Level source code must be translated before the CPU can read it. Each language has a compiler or interpreter to convert English-like expressions into machine language. C)Portability: Portability means using of form of software, such as operating system or an application on several different kinds of hardware FORTRAN is a high level scientific language. It means formula translator. It was created in 1945 by John Backus, one of the IBM’s most respected computer scientists. FORTRAN allows programs to calculate complex formulas with a few source code instructions. It readily understands and executes the language of numbers. COBOL is a business language which stands for Common Business-Oriented Language. COBOL is a structured programming language. This means that it has a place for everything requiring programmers to put everything in its place. 1. COBOL programs are separated into four sections called divisions: The identification division documents, the program name, the programmer’s name(s), dates and other important identification information. 2.The environment Division names the computer hardware including the CPU and 1/0 device. 3.The Data Division identifies all associates files and working storage. COBOL divisions are further divided into paragraphs and sections. This structure helps programmers write codes efficiently and with a minimum of repetition and confusion. -They are self-documentary -They are self-explanatory BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instructions Code. BASIC is the most popular programming languages used by personal computer owners. Basic uses Five Major Categories of statements: •Arithmetic statements allow users to use BASIC like a calculator. Typing PRINT 2+2 programs your computer to display the results. •Input/Output statements including READ, DATA, INPUT and PRINT, PROGRAMS fundamental data flow functions. •Control Statements including GO TO, IF THEN, FOR, NEXT and FIND control the sequence instructions executed by the computer. •Other Statements including REM and DIM help document BASIC programs. For example, RUN means execute a program, list directs the computer to display a BASIC program.
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